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Best Guide on Types of Beam | 6 Types of Beam Mechanics

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Beam is a common component in building construction for common people but when you work as an engineer then the beam converts into the type of beam and also beam support plays a major role.

If you didn't know about Types of Beam then don't worry, Civil Experience writes a detailed article on various types of beam mechanics used in civil engineering construction work based on different conditions.

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Types of Beam

6 Types of Beam Mechanics
Best Guide on Types of Beam | 6 Types of Beam Mechanics 1

Beam Definition

Beam is a Building component of a system having external loads at right angles to its axis

There are basically 6 types of beams used in mechanics. Beams used for finding out reactions on support (Types of Support) are assumed to be massless and the support, if pinned or roller, is frictionless. 

Simply Supported Beam

Starting from the simplest of Types of Beam Mechanics

The simply supported beam rests on a pin and roller support. Pin support allows rotation and roller support allows rotation and lateral movement

The deflected shape of the beam in 2D would look something like this on loading. 

Simply Supported Beam

Simply Supported Beam has got 3 unknown reactions which are vertical reactions at both the support and a horizontal reaction at pin support.

We have 3 equilibrium equations in which a resummation of forces in the vertical direction is zero, the summation of forces in the horizontal direction is zero and the moment about any of the support is zero, to find the 3 reactions. 

Hence it is called a statically determinate beam

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Overhanging Beam

Next, we are looking at an overhanging beam Types of Beam Mechanics in which some portion of the beam extends from the support from one side. 

The deflected shape of the beam on uniform loading between supports would look something like this, in which both the supports will allow rotation of the beam. 

Overhanging Beam

If the overhang is from both ends then the beam is supposed to be called, a double overhang, and the deflected shape on uniform loading would look something like this. 

double overhang beam

These arrangements are also statically determined with 3 unknowns and 3 equilibrium equations

Also Read: Hidden Beams

Fixed Beam

Next is a Fixed beam, which has fixed or rigid supports from both ends. 

Deflected shape due to uniform loading will look something like this in which fixed supports will not rotate

Fixed Beam

Fixed support gives all 3 reactions which are horizontal, vertical and moment at both supports hence a total of 6 unknowns

These unknowns cannot be found by 3 equilibrium equations 

Hence the arrangement is called statically indeterminate

Cantilever Beam

Next, we will see a cantilever beam, which is fixed on one side and free on the other side. 

Deflected shape due to loading will look something like this. 

Cantilever Beam

This beam has got only 3 unknowns hence they can be found by equilibrium equations making this beam statically determinate

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Propped Cantilever Beam

Next, we will see a propped cantilever beam which is nothing but a cantilever beam with Roller support at the other end. 

The deflected shape due to loading on the propped cantilever will look something like this. 

Propped Cantilever Beam

As the total number of unknown reactions is 4, 3 from fixed support and one from the roller, it will be termed as a statically indeterminate beam

But what if I tell you that a propped cantilever can be made statically determinate? This can be possible by introducing an internal hinge or pin. The internal hinge allows free rotation hence moment at that point is zero. 

Beams to the left and right of the internal hinge can be treated like 2 separate beams for calculations. Deflections due to uniformly distributed loading in this case would look something like this. 

Propped Cantilever Beam

The slope abruptly changes on each side of the hinge. In the real world, a shear connection between 2 beams can be assumed as an internal hinge.

Continuous Beam

Next comes a continuous beam that has 2 or more 2 spans. The support at the ends may be fixed, pinned, or rolled. The ends can be overhanging or supported. 

Deflected shape of the continuous beam unloading will look something like this. 

Continuous Beam

The point to be noted here is that the intermediate support will not allow rotation of the beam hence there will be some amount of bending moment present at that support. As the unknown reactions in a continuous beam are more than 3, the reactions cannot be statically determined

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  1. What is Beam Definition?

    A beam is a structural member of a system having external loads at right angles to its axis

  2. Simply Supported Beam

    The simply supported beam rests on a pin and roller support. Pin support allows rotation and roller support allows rotation and lateral movement. 

  3. Overhanging Beam

    overhanging beam Types of Beam Mechanics in which some portion of the beam extends from the support from one side. 

  4. Fixed Beam

    Fixed beam, which has fixed or rigid supports from both ends.

  5. Cantilever Beam

    Cantilever beam, which is fixed on one side and free on the other side.

  6. Propped Cantilever Beam

    Propped cantilever beam which is nothing but a cantilever beam with Roller support at the other end.

  7. Continuous Beam

    Continuous beam that has 2 or more 2 spans. The support at the ends may be fixed, pinned, or rolled. The ends can be overhanging or supported.

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It is my pleasure to welcome you to civilexperiences.com, a website created and managed by Dudhat Aakash. In addition to having a Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering

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