What is Wood? | Wood Classification | Different Types of Wood


Wood is a hard fibrous material making the trunk and branches of trees or bushes. The trees are first felled, then the timber logs are then divided in the sawmills to smaller sizes and these wooden blocks are then utilized for producing furniture.

Characteristics of Wood

  • Wood is low weight and durable.
  • Wood sustains its thermal characteristics, so it is tolerant to excessive temperatures.
  • The heat conductivity of wood is relatively low in comparison to aluminum, marble, steel, or glass.
  • It also can absorb sound and echo.
  • Wood is a poor conductor of electricity.

Wood Classification

Types Of Wood
Type of Wood

Wood may be generally categorized as Softwood and Hardwood.

  1. Hardwoods
  2. Softwood

Density is a fundamental factor in the strength of wood.

Hardwoods are generally denser than softwoods, Hardwoods are therefore stronger as well as more durable.

Also Read: What is Seasoning of Wood

What is Hardwood?

Hardwood originates from deciduous trees that have large leaves, yield fruits or nuts, and are normally inactive in the winter.

Hardwoods have a much more high density as compared to softwoods.

Hardwood offers richer shades of red and brown and it is a little expensive.

What is Softwood?

Softwood originates from coniferous trees. These trees are also known as evergreen trees as leaves do not fall until the new ones grow.

Softwood generally grows in locations with a cold environment.

Coniferous trees grow rapidly; consequently, they are less costly as compared to hardwood. They are more economical because they can be easily grown.

Soft Wood contains tones of yellow or red and is less costly compared to Hardwood.

Also Read: Write a Brief Note on The Characteristic of Good Timber

Types of Wood

Wood is a natural material that has been used for thousands of years as an important construction material and fuel source. It can be used to make furniture, flooring, cabinets, doors, windows, and other building components.

There are two main types of wood: hardwood and softwood. Hardwoods are durable, strong, and resistant to decay, while softwoods are more flexible but less stable than hardwoods. Softwoods include pine, cedar, fir, spruce, hemlock, and others. Hardwoods include oak, maple, mahogany, teak, and others.

Below we explain a particular type of wood in detail so read and share if you gain valuable solutions from civil experience.

Types of Hardwood

Type%20Of%20Hardwood Civil Experience
Types of Hardwood
  • Teak wood
  • Rose wood
  • Oak wood
  • Maple wood
  • Ash wood
  • Mango wood
  • Neem wood
  • Mahogany wood
  • Beech wood
  • Walnut wood
  • Marandi wood

Also Read: Pile Foundation


One of the most popular types of hardwood is Teakwood.

The density of Teakwood is 740-1000 kg/m3.

Often highly figured, teak may have a linear grain pattern. The natural oils in teak make it termite and pest-resistant.

Teakwood is yellow to dark brown in color and is extremely heavy, durable, strong, weather-resistant, warp-resistant, and does not decay.

Teakwood is extensively used more as a structural wood for wooden framed buildings, doorways, window frames, and partitions.

This type of wood is a great option for outdoor furniture such as garden tables/benches & lounge chairs. Most people choose teak for their interior furniture like beds, closets, and wardrobes.

Different Types of Teak Wood

Exam of Different types of teak wood is listed here in civil experience.

  1. Ghana Teak
  2. Ivory Teak
  3. Sudan Teak
  4. Tanzania Teak
  5. Burma Teak
How to Identify Different Types of Teakwood
How to Identify Different Types of Teakwood
Burma Teak Light brown in color
3-5% white 95-97% light brown
Straight-line figure with occasional knots
Tanzania Teak Brownish in color with occasional black veins
100% brown in color
Black colored knots sometimes get visible
Sudan Teak Yellowish-Brown in color
5-7% white 93-95% Yellowish-brown
Fewer knots compared to Ghana Teak and Ivory Teak
Ivory Teak Yellowish in color
15-20% white 80-85% Yellow (Approx)
Fewer knots compared to Ghana Teak
Sp Ghana Teak Whitish-yellow in color
40% white 60% Yellow (Approx)
A lot of knots visible on the surface

Oak Wood

Oak Wood is a dense, durable, and light-colored timber.

It’s a comfort to work with. Moisture, fungi, and yeast are all resistant to disease to it.

It’s a great choice for furniture like bookcases and cabinets in the home and business. It’s also a popular choice for outdoor furniture.

Oak is also used for flooring, timber-framed buildings, and veneer fabrication by interior designers. Rosewood has a density of 600-897 kg/m3.


The grains of Maplewood are curly. Maple wood has a wonderful texture and is quite strong. It is widely used in the production of home decors such as console tables, wall shelves, and bedside tables. Maple wood has a density of 625-753 kg/m3.


Ashwood is a heavy, strong wood. The flexibility and strength of ash are well-known. It has a remarkable oakwood-like texture and is white to light brown in color. Ash is a common material for structural frames and steam-bent furniture. Guitars, drum shells, frames, sports equipment, ladders, and baseball bats are all made from it. Ash is used to making decorative veneers because of its unique texture.

Also Read: Ingredients of a Varnish – Types of Varnishes

Rose Wood

Rose wood is exceptionally hard and has a dark reddish-brown color.

It has a unique fragrance.

It’s difficult to work with and requires a lot of polishing. Sheesham is another name for East Indian rosewood.

Musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, decorative veneers, and furniture are all made of rosewood. Rosewood has a density of 800-880 kg/m3.

Neem Wood

Neem wood is a reddish-brown color that looks a lot like Mahogany. It’s durable and long-lasting and strong. Because the wood’s grains are interlocked, it is difficult to split apart. Toys, home accessories, bedside tables, bar units, metal furniture, and other items are made with it.


Mangowood is a thick, robust hardwood with a very appealing grain pattern. Its grain is distinctive in that it has a variety of tones and colors, ranging from light brown to dark brown with traces of green. It is lighter and more water-resistant than other wood varieties. It’s ideal for furniture in the living room and bedroom, nesting tables, kitchen cupboards, multimedia units, and bookcases.

Mahogany Wood

The wood has a reddish-brown color, with red being the most prominent. It’s strong and has a consistent pore structure. It’s a great carving wood with great polish. Fashion cabinets, nesting tables, dining table sets, and other forms of interior furniture typically utilize it. Boats, window frames, and veneers are all made of mahogany. Mahogany wood has a density of 497-850 kg/m3.

Also Read: Different Types of Waterproofing

Beech Wood

Beechwood is a solid, durable, and heavy wood with very small pores. It has a light pink color to it. Beech is often used in laser carving and a range of wooden furniture for usage at home and in the workplace. Steam beech is another name for it.


Walnut has a delicate texture and is one of the most popular and famous wood types. The color ranges from light to dark chocolate brown. Dining table sets, coffee tables, veneer, musical instruments, pistol stocks, and wall paneling are all possible uses for this wood. Walnut wood has a density of 641-689 kg/m3.


Marandi is a light, soft, and uniformly textured fabric. It has a crimson hue to it. Window frames and wooden dividers are made from it. The majority of it comes from Malaysia. Shoe racks, chests, drawers, trunks, and other ornamental things may all be made from it.

Types of Softwood

Type%20Of%20Softwood Civil Experience
Types of Softwood
  • Pine wood
  • Cedar wood
  • Spruce wood
  • Deodar wood


Pinewood is a light-weight, straight-grained soft white or light-yellow wood with a soft, white or light-yellow color. It is resistant to warping, swelling, and shrinking. Pine is a fairly forgiving wood to work with when it comes to shaping and staining. It may be used in the building of houses, furniture, boxes, and wall decorations. Pine has a density of 352-849 kg/m3.


Cedarwood is a knotty softwood with faint lines and a red-brown color. In comparison to other softwoods, cedar is quite soft. The wood has a consistent texture and is resistant to deterioration and vermin. Cabinets, chests of drawers, roof coverings, cabinets, decks, and poles are the best uses for this wood. Cedarwood has a density of 368-577 kg/m3.


Spruce is a hard and durable wood. It has a good finish and a low deterioration resistance. It shrinks slightly and is modest in weight. It may be used to make ship poles, stools, millwork, ladders, boxes, crates, and containers. It’s also utilized for external wall paneling, gates, and gazebos, among other things. Cedarwood has a density of 400-705 kg/m3.


Deodar is a yellowish-brown wood. It’s used to make low-cost furniture, railway carriage, sleepers, packing boxes, and structural construction, among other things. Devdhar has a density of 560 kg/m3. It’s also used during the construction process.

Also Read: Collection Of Top Civil Engineering Excel Sheets

Author Aakash Dudhat

It is my pleasure to welcome you to civilexperiences.com, a website created and managed by Dudhat Aakash. In addition to having a Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering

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