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Top 9 METHODS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE

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Transporting Concrete

Transporting Concrete is defined as the process involved in carrying concrete mix from mixing place to place where the cast is described as transporting of concrete

Efforts have been made to minimise the time between the mixing of concrete and compaction of concrete within forms

The specification provides a maximum time of two hours between time from water added to the concrete mix ingredients and the placing of concrete if the concrete mix is transported by use of vibrators or truck mixer if the agitator is absent then time reduce to one hour

In all of this, it is assumed that the concrete temperature during placing is not less than 5°C and not more than 32°C

However, it is now confirmed that the delay in placing the concrete, after the initial setting takes place, is not harmful and may give strength, although the concrete retains sufficient efficiency to allow full compaction

Requirement during transporting of concrete

No matter which conveyance method is selected but it should be fulfilled the below requirement during the transportation of concrete which are:

  • The placing of concrete at the point of casting should be uniform and also proper consistency
  • Segregation of concrete should not happen
  • Excessive drying and stiffening of mixed concrete is not allowed
  • The cost of transportation should be minimum
  • The time of the process of concrete mixing, transporting, placing of concrete, and compacting of the mix should not be higher than 90 minutes in any case

Method of Transportation of concrete

  1. Mortar pan
  2. Wheelbarrow and hand carts
  3. Truck mixer and dampers
  4. Crane, bucket and ropeway
  5. Belt conveyors
  6. Chute
  7. Transit mixer
  8. Skip and Hoist
  9. Pump and pipeline

Mortar pan

  • Mortar span used for concrete transportation is one of the most general methods adopted
  • This method is adopted where concrete mix quantity is small and also point of placing of concrete is restricted to access
  • Normally iron span is used in transporting facilities and manually transport concrete in pans
  • This is a slow and costly method of transporting

Wheelbarrow and hand carts

  • Wheelbarrows of steel with pneumatic tyres are Used for medium distances
  • Wheelbarrow capacity varies between 70 litres to 80 litres
  • This method of transportation of concrete is mainly adopted when in road construction where concrete is deposited at or below concrete mixer level than steel wheelbarrow is the best mode of transportation of concrete

Truck mixer and dumpers

  • Trucks, dumpers and any other open body vehicle lorries can be used in operation to transport concrete economically for To carry of up to about 5 km
  • Dumpers capacity is normally 2 to 3 cubic metres whereas truck mixer capacity maybe 4 cubic metre
  • Inside the body of the vehicle should be wetted with water before loading the concrete mix
  • Tarpaulins or other covers should be used to cover the loaded wet concrete during transporting concrete to prevent evaporation and stiffening
  • The agitators help a lot with the mixing process at a slow rate

Crane, bucket and ropeway

  • Crane and buckets are mostly used when there is a need for transporting concrete above ground level
  • Cranes are extremely useful in high rise building construction project
  • Cranes are very fast and adaptable to transport concrete vertically as well as horizontally
  • Cranes carry buckets and skips containing green concrete mix and skip have a door at the bottom for discharge whereas bucket tilting operation is needed for emptying
  • For medium job capacity of the bucket may be 0.5 cubic meter
  • Ropeway and buckets mostly used in transporting concrete for construction work like concrete dams, concrete bridge
  • In this process mixing of concrete is completed on the bank and then concrete is brought in the bucket by pully or other operation to a place of discharge. steel towers are erected on the bank of the river to provide support to the rope for this operation

Belt conveyors

  • The belt conveyors method is used when there is a need to transport concrete continuously 
  • This method is highly preferable during summer days because there is a high rate of evaporating which decrease w/c ration to avoid this you should use belt conveyors for continuous transporting thorough work at a distance of 250 to 500 meter from the place of mixing
  • This method is also taken in work operations where it’s difficult for other types like lorries for transporting concrete
  • The belt used in covering rubber of 60 cm in width and also the speed of the belt should not be more than 1 meter per second
  • The slump of concrete mix which transported by belt conveyors is not more than 6 cm
  • The angle is of the belt not higher than 15°
  • When concrete unloads from the belt conveyer then should use a guild board so that segregation is eliminated. For short distance like 20 meter flat belts is suitable but for larger distance haul trough-shaped belts are suitable

Chute

  • The chute is normally taken into operation when there is a need of transporting concrete from ground level to below leverslop is restricted by 1:2.5 (1 verticle:2.5 horizontal) because of point kept in mind to avoid segregation of concrete

Transit mixer

  • Transit mixer is most largely used equipment for concrete transportation through long distance 
  • It’s especially used in transporting RMC (ready mixed concrete) and in now day used of ready mixed concrete for construction on a large scale due to high quality and fast construction
  • In transit mix, the concrete batched at a central plant is mixed materials during the time of transit to the site
  • The transit mixer mounted on a vehicle having the capacity of 4 to 7 cubic meter
  • The speed of mixer rotation is 2 to 6 revolutions per minute. Long haul offer by transit mixer
  • The time period of transit after adding water to an ingredient is normally limited from one hr to one and a half hr
  • The total number of mixture revolutions is limited to 300

Skip and hoist

  • This method is taken into operation for transporting concrete vertically upward for the casting of multi-story building construction
  • Mixter directly feeds the skip at ground level
  • The skip vertically up over the rail up to the casting level
  • In the multi-story building where the time taken for transporting of skip and discharging of concrete mix is large skips with an individual which units are provided
  • When one skip travels the other one is filled with concrete thereby allowing greater efficiency of the whole operation

Pumps and pipeline

  • Pumping of concrete by use of steel pipe is one of the most successful methods of concrete transporting
  • In multi-storied buildings, tunnels and bridges mostly used pumped concrete
  • The concrete is fed from the hopper in to pump largely by gravity but is also assisted by the vacuum produced on the suction stroke of the piston and forces into the pipeline on the pressure stroke
  • The pipeline generally filled and concrete mix move uniformly cohesive and mix will feed more readily that a harsh and dry mix
  • The concrete pump generally available in capacity varies from 15 to 150 cubic meters per hour
  • Bends in the pipeline reduce the effective distance by 10 meters for each 90° bend, 5 meters for a 45° and 3 meters for a 22.5° bend

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Author Aakash Dudhat

It is my pleasure to welcome you to civilexperiences.com, a website created and managed by Dudhat Aakash. In addition to having a Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering

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