Building construction is a complex process that involves a variety of steps and tasks. This article provides a step-by-step guide to the building construction process, from the initial planning stages to the final completion of the project.
By reading this article, you will gain a better understanding of the various stages of building construction, and how each step contributes to the overall success of the project.
Additionally, this article will be useful for anyone looking to understand the building construction process, whether you are an architect, a contractor, a building owner or just a curious reader.
This article will help you to understand the process of building construction and how you can benefit from it.
Building Construction Process Two Main Parts
Building Construction Process can be divided into two main parts:
- Pre-Construction: This phase includes all the planning, design, and preparation work that needs to be done before the actual construction can begin. This phase is also referred to as the “Design phase” and its sub-parts include:
- Site analysis and Site Selection
- Feasibility study
- Zoning and building code compliance
- Architectural design
- Engineering design (structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing)
- Cost estimating and budgeting
- Construction: This phase includes all the tasks related to the actual construction of the building. This phase is also referred to as the “Implementation phase” and its sub-parts include:
- Site excavation and foundation work
- Framing and rough-ins
- Mechanical, electrical and plumbing rough-ins
- Insulation and drywall
- Finishes (flooring, paint, etc.)
- Final inspections and occupancy permits
It's important to note that the construction process can vary depending on the type of project, and may include additional steps or tasks specific to the project.
In the pre-construction phase of the building construction process, the first step is usually the selection and acquisition of a suitable plot or land for the construction project. This may involve hiring a real estate agent, conducting a site analysis and selection, and completing all necessary legal and financial transactions.
Once a plot has been acquired, the next step is to begin the design process. This may involve hiring an architect and consulting with other professionals such as engineers, surveyors, and planners. The architect will then develop conceptual designs and floor plans, which will be reviewed and refined based on the client's needs, budget and other factors.
During this phase, a feasibility study is conducted to ensure that the proposed project is financially and technically viable. This study will also identify any potential challenges or obstacles that may arise during the construction process.
Additionally, it is important to ensure that the project is in compliance with all zoning and building code regulations. This may involve submitting plans for review and obtaining necessary permits and approvals from local authorities.
Once the design process is complete and all necessary approvals have been obtained, the next step is to select a contractor and begin the cost estimating and budgeting process. This will involve obtaining detailed cost estimates for all materials, labor, and other expenses associated with the project.
Overall, the pre-construction phase of the building construction process is a critical step in ensuring the success of the project. It is important that all necessary steps are taken to properly plan, design and prepare for the construction process to ensure that the project is completed on time, within budget, and to the satisfaction of the client.
Civil Experience divided this whole complicated process step by step so you can easily understand.
#1 Pre-construction Steps
The first step in the building construction process is the pre-construction phase which includes tasks such as acquiring a suitable plot, designing the project, conducting a feasibility study, obtaining necessary permits and approvals, and selecting a contractor. This phase also includes cost estimating and budgeting for the project.
Finding the right location for the building is a crucial and main step in the building construction process. Careful consideration should be taken while selecting a plot of land that is suitable for construction, has all desired facilities nearby and is free from any land-related issues. It is recommended to conduct thorough research and data collection before making a final decision on land acquisition, this can be done through online research or by consulting with real estate agents or other professionals to ensure effective cost.
Search for Technical Consultant
Once the appropriate land for the building has been selected, it is important to seek the assistance of a professional architect to develop building designs and gain expert advice.
The architect will create plans that cater to the building requirements, number of flats, shops, and budget.
After the design process, the architect will consult with structural and MEP engineers for specific details such as foundation depth, reinforcement sizes, column width, electrical and plumbing requirements.
The design process for building construction begins with creating a rough requirement list for your home. This list should include basic concepts such as the desired living space, number of bedrooms, guest bedrooms, hall, kitchen, bathrooms, location of stairs, car porch, and any landscaping or pond features desired. It's important to involve your family in this process and consider their likes and suggestions. Additionally, you can gain valuable insight by visiting friends, talking to neighbors about their properties and learning about what they would like to improve. This will give you a better idea of the stages of work involved in building construction.
Prepare Estimation and Budgets
Once the planning and structural detailing is completed, the next step in the building construction process is preparing an estimation and budget. Building construction requires a large quantity of materials and budget, therefore the building estimator will use the details to estimate the material quantity and the cost of different items of work. This results in an abstract sheet that shows the overall cost of building construction. It is important to keep in mind that if financial resources are limited, it is necessary to seek pre-approval for loans in advance to avoid any cash crunch situations during the construction process.
Obtaining building permits is a crucial step in the building construction process. Before beginning construction, it is necessary to obtain permission from various boards such as the municipal board, airport authority, and pollution control board. The documents required for obtaining building permits may vary depending on the state, but some essential documents include:
- Land Survey
- Soil test report (SBC report)
- Drawings such as Plan, Elevation, Section
- Structural Certificate
- Architect Certificate
It is important to ensure that all necessary documents are obtained and submitted before applying for building permits to avoid any delays in the construction process.
Approach a Contractor
Choosing the right contractor is crucial for ensuring the quality and timely completion of a building construction project. Before approaching a contractor, it's important to conduct a thorough investigation and research on the builder's reputation, past work, and qualifications.
Once you have identified a suitable contractor, it's important to clearly outline the project details and scope of work in a contract document. This document should also include information on the cost and payment methods, as well as timelines for the completion of the project. It's also essential to thoroughly review and understand the terms and conditions of the contract before finalizing the agreement. This can help avoid any potential misunderstandings or disputes during the construction process.
Building Warranty Period
It is important to keep all warranty documents and receipts in a safe place for future reference. The owner should also conduct regular inspections to ensure that the building is functioning properly and to identify any issues that may need to be addressed during the warranty period.
#2 During Building Construction Steps
The next step in building construction is the actual building process. This includes clearing the site, excavation, laying the foundation, building walls with brick or masonry, and plastering the walls. Different types of construction may have additional steps, such as roofing or electrical work. More detailed information about these steps can be provided upon request.
The initial step in building construction is to clear the site of any debris, foliage, or large rocks. Any hills or depressions in the land must also be leveled out. This process is known as site clearance.
The next step after site clearance is excavation, where the layout of the structure is planned according to the foundation plans. This includes digging trenches and excavating earth to prepare the site for the foundation of the building.
After the excavation step is completed, the foundation work can begin. This includes laying the foundation according to the drawings provided by the architect, taking into consideration the size, depth, width, and length of the foundation, as well as the type of foundation (such as rubble packing or raft and beams). It is important to ensure that the foundation is strong and stable to support the entire structure.
Plinth Beam or Slab
This step is known as the plinth beam or slab construction. It provides a solid base for the rest of the building and helps to distribute the weight of the structure evenly. The plinth beam or slab also helps to keep the building level and stable and protects it from moisture and water damage. This step is crucial for the overall stability and durability of the building.
Superstructure Column and Beam
The next step in the building construction process is to construct the superstructure, which is the upper part of the building above the plinth level. This includes the construction of beams and columns, which are the main structural elements of the building. The columns are built up to the slab level, and the frame for further construction is prepared using these elements.
Brick Masonry Work
Once the framework of beams and columns is completed, masonry work begins using materials such as fly ash bricks, concrete blocks, and bricks, as specified in the building's architectural plans. The masonry work is completed using a mixture of cement and sand, known as cement mortar. Care is taken to ensure that the masonry work is done according to the architectural plans and that openings for windows and doors are placed correctly.
Lintel Over Door Window
Construction of lintels over doors and windows is done to provide support to the masonry work above them. Once the lintels are in place, the masonry work can continue.
Floor Slab or Roof Structure
Then, the formwork for the floor slab or roof structure is prepared and placed on top of the columns and beams. Reinforcement is added to the slab according to the detailed drawing provided.
Plastering work is done after the initial lighting and electrical plumbing work are completed. The plaster is typically applied with a thickness of 12mm, and in some cases, it may be 20mm thick. Plastering is done to strengthen the building structure, protect it from weather effects, and give it an attractive appearance.
The importance of plastering in building construction includes making the building structurally strong, protecting it from the effects of weather, and providing it with an attractive appearance. Additionally, plastering work helps to smooth out any imperfections in the surface of the walls, creating a smooth and even surface that is ready for painting or other finishes. It also helps to seal the walls and prevent moisture from penetrating into the interior of the building. Plastering is an essential step in the construction process that helps to ensure the longevity and durability of the building.
Door and Window Framing and Fixations
After that door and window frames have been fixed at their specified position given in the drawing.
Plumbing & Electrical
It is important to note that plumbing and electrical work must be done by licensed professionals, as they are responsible for ensuring that the building's systems are safe and functional. These systems include the supply of water and gas to the building, as well as the distribution of electricity to various rooms and appliances. Plumbing and electrical work should be done in compliance with local building codes and regulations to ensure the safety of the inhabitants and to prevent any potential hazards.
Once all the prior construction steps are completed, exterior plastering and finishing work begins. Waterproofing may also be applied to protect against rising dampness. External cladding can be added to improve the appearance of the building.
Internal walls are plastered to create a smooth surface, and flooring is installed using tiles. The walls are then painted or stained to add color.
Woodwork and Fixture Fittings
Finally, woodwork such as cabinetry, wardrobes, and other wooden fixtures are installed. This includes the installation of doors, windows, and other hardware. At this stage, all fixtures and fittings such as light fixtures, door handles, and faucets are also added to complete the building.
Handover and Maintenance
After the warranty period is over, the building is officially handed over to the owner. The owner is responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of the building. The contractor may provide a maintenance contract for a certain period of time, to ensure that the building remains in good condition. Regular inspections and maintenance should be performed to ensure the longevity and safety of the building.
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