Ingredients of a Varnish - Types of Varnishes

Today we learn What are the ingredients of a varnish? Describe the various types of varnishes 1. Resin Copal, lac or shellac and rosin...

Today we learn What are the ingredients of a varnish? Describe the various types of varnishes

Ingredients of a Varnish

Varnish consists of the following:

1. Resin

Copal, lac or shellac and rosin are some of the commonly used resins.

Some other types of resin are amber, mastic, gum dammer etc.

2. Drier

Drier accelerates the drying process.

The commonly used driers are litharge, white copper and lead acetate.

3. Solvent

The type of solvent depends on the type of resin used.

For example, Linseed oil is used for amber and copal resins, turpentine is used for mastic, rosin type of resins, wood naphtha is used for some other varieties of resins etc.

Types of Varnishes

Various Types of Varnishes

According to the type of solvent used, varnishes are classified as:

1. Oil Varnish

Linseed oil is used as a solvent in this varnish.

Linseed Oil for Oil Color


Hard resins like amber and copal are dissolved in linseed oil and sometimes a small quantity of turpentine is also used.

Oil varnish dries up very slowly but forms a hard and durable surface.

2. Spirit Varnish

In this, the methylated spirit of wine is used as the solvent.

The spirit varnish dries up quickly but is not durable and is easily affected by weathering actions.

3. Turpentine Varnish

Here turpentine oil is used as the solvent and the resins used are of soft variety like mastic and rosin.

These varnishes dry up quickly and possess some light colour but are not tough and durable.


4. Water Varnish

Some of the resins like shellac are dissolved in hot water and a sufficient quantity of ammonia or borax or potash or soda is added.

These varnishes are used for varnishing maps, pictures etc.


FAQ 1: Which Ingredients of a Varnish increase Drying process?

Drier Ingredients of a Varnish accelerates the drying process.

FAQ 2: Which Types of Varnishes make surface hard and durable?

Oil varnish dries up very slowly but forms a hard and durable surface.

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