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Different Types of Cement in India Used in Construction [Part 1] | Ordinary Portland Cements | Rapid hardening Cement | Extra Rapid Hardening Cement | Quick Setting Cement | Low Heat Portland Cement | Sulphate Resisting Cement | Super Sulphated Cement

TYPES OF CEMENTS

In this Civil Experience article, we overall Types of cements such as Different Types of Cement in India Used in Construction [Part 1] | Ordinary Portland Cements | Rapid hardening Cement | Extra Rapid Hardening Cement | Quick Setting Cement | Low Heat Portland Cement | Sulphate Resisting Cement | Super Sulphated Cement which used in civil engineering construction work project so read carefully

Different Types of Cements

Different Types of Cement in India Used in Construction [Part 1] | Ordinary Portland Cements | Rapid hardening Cement | Extra Rapid Hardening Cement | Quick Setting Cement | Low Heat Portland Cement | Sulphate Resisting Cement | Super Sulphated Cement
Different Types of Cement

List of Types of Cements used in the Construction Industry 

  1. Ordinary Portland Cements
  2. Rapid hardening Cement
  3. Extra Rapid Hardening Cement
  4. Quick Setting Cement
  5. Low Heat Portland Cement
  6. Sulphate Resisting Cement
  7. Super Sulphated Cement

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Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC Cement) Type of Cements

Ordinary Portland Cements | OPC Cement | Type of Cements

Ordinary portland cements is mostly used cement for all most all types of work.

Ordinary portland cements is by far the most common cement in use nearly about 70% of all cement used in India is one of the types of cements is Ordinary Portland Cements.

Ordinary Portland Cements is suitable for general day to day construction works when there is no exposure to sulphates in the soil or in the groundwater.

There is only one grade of Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC cement) governed by IS 269: 1976 prior to 1987. and After 1987 higher grades of OPC cements were introduced in India.

Ordinary Portland Cements - OPC cement grade

Three different grades of Ordinary Portland Cements to produce high strength cement is 

  1. Ordinary Portland Cements 33 grade of O.P.C. - IS 269 : 1989 Download
  2. Ordinary Portland Cements 43 grade of O.P.C. - IS 8112 : 1989 Download
  3. Ordinary Portland Cements 53 grade of O.P.C. - IS 12269 : 1987 Download

In modern construction activities, higher grade cement has become so popular that 33 grade cement is almost out of the market.

Although they are a little costlier low-grade cement; they offer many benefits such as 10-20% saving in cement consumption, a faster rate of development of strength and higher strength.

Also ReadCement Calculator

The use of Ordinary Portland Cements - OPC cement is recommended in the following situations:

For general concrete construction when there is no exposure to sulphates in the soil or in ground water.

What is the OPC cement full form?

Ordinary Portland Cements is the OPC cement full form

Rapid hardening Cement (RHC) Type of Cements

Rapid hardening Cement | RHC cement | Type of Cements

IS code for Rapid hardening Cement is IS 8041 : 1990

As the name implies, it develops strength rapidly and therefore can be called high early strength cement.

The name itself shows that it hardened and achieve its strength faster than ordinary Portland cement.

The strength of Rapid hardening Cement (RHC) at the age of 3 days is equal to the 7 days strength of OPC with the same w/c rato.

The increased rate of gain of strength of Rapid hardening cement - RHC is achieved by a higher C3S content and by finer grinding of clinker.

The main advantage of rapid hardening cement is that formwork/shuttering (i.e. Mivan shuttering) may be removed much earlier, thus saving considerable time and expenses. 

Rapid hardening cement is also used for road work where it is necessary to open the road traffic with minimum delay. 

The rapid gain of strength is accompanied by a high rate of heat development and hence it should not be used in mass concrete construction like concrete gravity dams, concrete retaining walls etc.

Use of Rapid Hardening Portland Cement

The use of RHC is recommended in the following situations which are listed below

  • In Pre-fabricated concrete construction.
  • For Road repair works.
  • Wall sealing.
  • Where formwork/shuttering (Mivan shuttering) is required to be removed early for re-use in different members.
  • In cold weather concreting.
Also Read: Manufacture of Cement | How is Cement Made

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement Type of Cements

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement | Type of Cements

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement is obtained by intergrinding calcium chloride with RHC. The quantity of Calcium chloride (Cacl2) should not exceed 2% during the manufacturing of Extra Rapid Hardening Cement.

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement is necessary the concrete made by using extra rapid hardening cement should be transported, placed, compacted and finished within 20 minutes.

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement must be stored under dry conditions and should generally be used within one month of despatch from the factory.

A large quantity of heat is evolved in a very short time after placing Extra Rapid Hardening Cement. A small amount of initial corrosion of reinforcement has also been reported. Extra Rapid Hardening Cement is not recommended for use in prestress concrete construction.

The strength of extra rapid hardening cement is about 25% higher than rapid hardening cement at 1 or 2 days and 10% to 20% higher at 7 days.

However, at 90 days the strength of extra Rapid hardening cement and RHC is nearly the same.

Use of Extra Rapid Hardening Cement

  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement is suitable for cold weather concreting.
  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement suitable where a very high early strength is required.
Also Read: What is Workability of concrete | Factors Affecting Workability

Quick Setting Cement Type of Cements

Quick Setting Cement | Type of Cements
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Quick Setting Cement sets very early but does not gain strength early.

The early setting property is brought out by reducing the gypsum content at the time of clinker grinding during the manufacturing of Quick Setting Cement.

Sometimes aluminium sulphate is added to accelerate the setting process of Quick Setting Cement.

Quick Setting Cement contains a higher percentage of C3A.

Quick Setting Cement is required to be mixed, placed and compacted very early.

Use of Quick Setting Cement

  • Quick Setting Cement used in Underwater constructions.
  • Grouting operations are also done by using Quick Setting Cement.
Also ReadWhat is Admixtures | Admixture Type, Use, Advantage & Limitation

Type of Cements Low Heat Portland Cement

Type of Cements | Low Heat Portland Cement

IS code for Low Heat Portland Cement is IS 12600 : 1989

The reaction of Low Heat Portland Cement with water is exothermic and produces a considerable quantity of heat.

The rise in temperature in the interior of a large concrete mass due to the heat of hydration can lead to serious cracking.

Low Heat Portland Cement is manufactured by reducing the % of C3S and C3A of ordinary Portland cement because Low Heat Portland Cement gets the strength at a slower rate and the heat of hydration is less. This will require a long time curing and keeping forms for a long time. 

As per IS specification, the heat of hydration of Low Heat Portland Cement shall be as follows:

  • 3 days:- not more than 80 calories/gram.
  • 7 days:- not more than 65 calories/gram.
  • 28 days:- not more than 75 calories/gram.

A low heat evolution is achieved by reducing the contents of C3s and C3A which are the compounds evolving the maximum heat of hydration and increasing C2s. For Low Heat Portland Cement, the rate of gain of strength is slow but the ultimate strength is the same as that of ordinary Portland cement.

The 7 days strength of Low Heat Portland Cement is not less than 16 MPa in contrast to 22 MPa in the case of ordinary Portland cement.

The speciļ¬c surface of Low Heat Portland Cement as found out by the air-permeability test is not less than 3200 sq. cm/gm.

Use of Low Heat Portland Cement

  • Low Heat Portland Cement is used in Mass Concrete Construction Works, such as dams and retaining walls.
  • Where it is necessary to produce a surface of Low Heat Portland Cement as found out by the air-permeability test is not less than 3200 sq. cm/gm.
  • Hot weather concreting.
Also ReadVarious Defects in Concrete With Precautions 

Sulphate Resisting Cement Type of Cements

Sulphate Resisting Cement | Type of Cements

IS code for Sulphate resisting Cement is IS 12330 : 1988

Ordinary Portland cement is susceptible to the attack of sulphates, in particular to the action of magnesium sulphate.

Sulphates react both with the free calcium hydroxide in set cement to form calcium sulphate (gypsum) and with hydrate of calcium aluminate to form calcium sulphoaluminate, the volume of which is about 227% of the volume of the original aluminates.

Their expansion within the framework of hardened cement paste results in cracks and subsequent disruption. This phenomenon is known as sulphate attack.

Sulphate attack is greatly accelerated if accompanied by alternate wetting and drying, as in the case for instance, in a marine structure in the zone between the tides.

Sulphate Resisting Cement is similar to ordinary Portland cement except that it contains more silicates and less quantity of aluminates. 

Soluble sulphates like MgSO4, CaSO4 and Na2SO4 when present in the ground reacts with cement and form 

Sulpho-aluminates have expansive properties and so causes disintegration of concrete (Due to this nature, it expands and this larger volume will create pressure on concrete, resulting in cracks and finally disintegration of concrete.) 

Sulphate Resisting Cement is strongly recommended for structures in seawater, coastal areas and Marshy lands. 

Use of Sulphate resisting Cement

  • Sulphate resisting cement is used for underwater structures particularly exposed to alkali actions. 
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement Concrete to be used in marine conditions.
  • Sulphate resisting cement is used in the canal.
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement Concrete to be used in the construction of sewage treatment plants.
  • Sulphate resisting cement concrete used for the fabrication of RCC pipes which are likely to be buried in the marshy regions.
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement Concrete to be used in foundation and basement where soils in infested with sulphates.
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement Concrete to be used in the construction chemical factory.

Type of Cements Super Sulphated Cement

Type of Cements | Super Sulphated Cement

IS code for Super Sulphated Cement is IS 6909 : 1990

Super Sulphated Cement is manufactured by grinding together a mixture of 80 – 85% of granulated blast furnace slag and 10 – 15% of calcium sulphate and about 5% of Portland cement clinker. 

The cement is highly resistant to sulphate attack.

Super Sulphated Cement's specific surface is between 3500 to 5000 cm2/gm.  Super Sulphated Cement is free from a false set having an initial setting time between 2(1/2) to 4 hours and a final setting time between 4(1/2) to 7 hours. Its total heat of hydration is very low, about 38 calories/gm at 7 days and 42 calories/gm at 28 days.

Super Sulphated Cement's setting action is different from other cement and admixtures should not be used with it. If used in RCC work a minimum cover of 35 mm is necessary. Super Sulphated Cement is highly resistant to chemical attacks. If cured in air, the surface gets softened by atmospheric CO2. Hence, a minimum of 3 days of water curing is preferable.

Use of Super Sulphated Cement

  • In foundations, where chemically aggressive conditions exist then we use Super Sulphated Cement.
  • Because of the low heat of evolution, it is useful for mass concrete works.
  • In marine works
  • Super Sulphated Cement is also useful for foundation works where aggressive chemical conditions exist.
  • RCC pipes were likely to be used in sulphate bearing soils.
  • Mass Concreting.

Different Types of Cement in India Used in Construction [Part 1] is half article but in Detailed we will upload the rest types of cement as soon as possible

FAQ 1: What is the OPC cement full form?

Ordinary Portland Cements is the OPC cement full form

FAQ 2: What is the Use of Rapid Hardening Portland Cement?

1. In Pre-fabricated concrete construction. 2. For Road repair works. 3. Wall sealing. 4. Where formwork/shuttering (Mivan shuttering) is required to be removed early for re-use in different members. 5. In cold weather concreting.

FAQ 3: What is the Use of Extra Rapid Hardening Cement?

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement is suitable for cold weather concreting. Extra Rapid Hardening Cement suitable where a very high early strength is required.

FAQ 4: What is the use of Use of Quick Setting Cement?

1. Quick Setting Cement used in Underwater constructions. 2. Grouting operations are also done by using Quick Setting Cement.

FAQ 5: What is the Use of Low Heat Portland Cement?

1. Low Heat Portland Cement is used in Mass Concrete Construction Works, such as dams and retaining walls. 2. Where it is necessary to produce a surface of Low Heat Portland Cement as found out by the air-permeability test is not 3. less than 3200 sq. cm/gm. 4. Hot weather concreting.

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