Top 12 Civil Engineering Branches - Civil Experience
Top 12 Civil Engineering Branches
Welcome to Civil Experience civil engineering possess huge scope and contains a wide spectrum of sub-disciplines there are various fields within this engineering branch which you may choose to pursue your career this article is all about the branches of civil engineering
#1 Construction engineering
Construction engineering branch of civil engineering deals with planning construction and maintenance of structures of the building project
What is Construction engineering?
Construction Engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction and management of infrastructures such as roads and Highway, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads facilities, buildings, dams and utilities etc
These technicians are unique such that they are a cross between civil engineers and construction managers. construction engineering technologists learn the designing aspect much like civil engineers and construction site management functions much like construction managers at the educational level
Construction managers are not as focused on design work as they are on construction procedures methods and people management their primary concern is to deliver a project on time within budget and of the desired quality
The difference between a construction engineering technologist and a civil engineer is that civil engineering is an engineering discipline civil engineering students concentrate more on the design work which is more analytical gearing them toward a career as a design professional this essentially requires them to take a multitude of challenging design courses construction engineering students to take basic design courses as well as construction management courses
This allows them to understand both basic design functions as well as the building requirements needed to design and build today's infrastructures depending on which career the construction engineer has chosen to follow an entry-level design engineer
Normally provides support to project managers and assist with creating conceptual designs scope and cost estimates for the planning and construction of approved projects it should be noted that a career in design work does require a professional engineer license PE individuals who pursue this career path are strongly advised to sit for the engineer and training exam right while in college as it takes five years four years and us a postgraduate to obtain the PE license entry-level construction
Manager positions are typically called project engineers or assistant project engineers they are responsible for preparing purchasing requisitions processing change orders preparing monthly budgeting reports and handling meeting minutes the construction management position does not necessarily require a PE license however possessing one does make the individual more marketable as the PE license allows the individual to sign off on temporary structure designs construction engineers are problem solvers they contribute to the creation of infrastructure that best meets the unique demands of its environment
They must be able to understand infrastructure life cycles when compared and contrasted to design engineers construction engineers bring to the table their own unique perspectives for solving technical challenges with clarity and imagination while individuals considering this career path should certainly have a strong understanding of mathematics and science many other skills are also highly desirable including critical and analytical thinking time management people management and good communication skills job prospects for construction
Engineers generally have a strong psychical variation prospect has been poor due to the collapse of housing bubbles in many parts of the world this sharply reduced demand for construction force construction professionals towards infrastructure construction and therefore increased the competition faced by established and new construction engineers this increased competition and a core reduction in quantity demand is in parallel with a possible shift in the demand for construction engineers due to the automation of many engine earing pass overall resulting in reduced prospects for construction engineers in early 2010 the United States construction industry had a 27% unemployment rate this is nearly three times higher than the nine-point seven per cent national average unemployment rate the construction unemployment rate including tradesmen is culpable to the United States 1933 unemployment rate the lowest point of the Great Depression of 25 per cent
#2 Structural engineering
Structural engineering deals with structural analysis and design of structures number
Have you ever stopped to wonder at the huge variety of buildings and structures we see all around us why do we just assume that houses will stay up and bridges won't fall down
The answer can be found in the work of the structural engineer as highly-trained professionals work with architects and surveyors to ensure that whatever they're building can sustain the loads and stresses
It will have to bear as well as improving the places where we live they are the guardians of safe construction to the challenges they face are diverse and require both creativity and problem-solving skills
That's why structural engineers double designers and problem solvers – there are specialists to account for extreme conditions such as heavy snow or coastal storms there are seismic structural
Engineers who meet the challenges of construction within earthquake zones there are those who focus on disaster relief helping to rebuild shattered communities and restore normal life
There are engineers who specialized in renovating old buildings for continued use whilst preserving heritage and meeting modern standards and then there are forensic experts who investigate the reasons why some structures fail today's structural engineers must also face the issues of climate change which will make structures need to endure more challenging environments over time sustainability is an increasingly important goal new regulations require materials and construction techniques to create green buildings that are still strong and secure structural engineers are responsible for some of the most innovative concepts projects and designs
They are developing new technologies and techniques to create extraordinary structures that are quite literally changing the world but the work of the structural engineer isn't just focused on groundbreaking schemes they are also making a difference to people's lives buying or improving your home can be a major expense but you could save money by consulting a qualified engineer
They identify problems early on provide cost-effective solutions and ensure that all regular Asians are properly met
#3 Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering deals with the study of soil foundations bearing capacity etc
What is Geotechnical Engineering?
Geotechnical Engineering is a branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behaviour of Earth's materials
Geotechnical Engineering is important in civil engineering but also has applications in military mining petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground
Geotechnical Engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials evaluate the stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits assess risks posed by site conditions designers work in structure foundations and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction
A typical Geotechnical Engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties then follows a site investigation of soil rock fault distribution and the bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with on or in a proposed construction site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area nor on which the engineering will take place investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes landslides sinkholes soil liquefaction debris flows and Rock Falls
Geotechnical engineers and determines and designs the type of foundations earthworks and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings bridges medium to large commercial buildings and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow cold-based design foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls earthworks include embankments tunnels dikes and levees channels reservoirs deposition of hazardous waste in sanitary landfills
Geotechnical Engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves marinas and jetties ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms the fields of Geotechnical Engineering and engineering geology are closely related and have large areas of overlap
However, the field of Geotechnical Engineering is a speciality of engineering where the field of engineering geology is a speciality of geology
#4 Transportation Engineering
Transportation Engineering deals with planning construction and management of transportation facilities
#5 Surveyed Engineering
Surveyed Engineering branch of civil engineering deals with surveying and levelling of lands using various instruments mapping and contouring of terrains etc
Surveying is the process of analyzing and recording the characteristics of a land area sent to help design a plan or map for construction surveyors work with the elements of geometry trigonometry regression analysis physics engineering, metrology programming languages and the law they use equipment like total stations, robotic total stations, GPS receivers, retroreflectors, 3d scanners, radios handheld, tablets digital levels drones GIS and surveying software among all of the equipment
Total station is the currently preferred surveying equipment in the industry the planning and execution of most forms of construction required it is also used in transport communications mapping and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines and geodetic surveying surveys are carried out on a large scale with the help of control networks spending over long distances in cadastral surveying surveys are carried out
To define land ownership and boundaries in topographical surveys are carried out to determine land structure along with variation inland types in a silk surveying surveys are carried out after completion of a construction project to check variants from proposed design in photogrammetry surveys are carried out by taking photographs from elevated ground stations and live your aerial surveys
Surveys are carried out using remote sensors and light reflected by lasers to measure distances fundamental techniques used for surveying our triangulation trial operation traverse levelling and radiation
Triangulation in this technique numerous triangles are interconnected and overlapped to measure angles from a surveying station trilateration it
Follows the same technique as in triangulation with additional use of electronic distance meter traverse in this technique multiple lines of pre-measured links are interconnected to measure angles and distances levelling in this technique the difference in Heights and terrain are measures with the help of graduated rods radiation
in this technique radiating lines are drawn from a focal point to define boundaries converted to a small-scale surveying sheet surveying finds multiple industrial applications across various domains it is an integral part of the civil engineering discipline
#6 Water Resources Engineering
Water Resources Engineering civil engineering branch deals with the design and construction of hydraulic structures like dams canal water distribution system etc
#7 Environmental Engineering
Environmental Engineering deals with the study of environment-friendly designs sewage management pollution and their treatment
Ever since the dawn of civilisation, access to clean water and the removal of human waste has been a priority for humans.
Now with the exponential growth in population and advancements of technology so have our needs.
Well, what needs?
Well just about everything we need to survive. From the water, waste removal, pollution control, food, building regulations, public health, clean energy, the list is endless and it's down to the Environmental Engineers to ensure our needs are met all whilst protecting our planet for future generations.
This means looking into the future...
If the population of London doubles will everyone still have access to all these resources. That's not to mention every day someone is talking about rising CO2 levels and rightfully so! We only have one planet and the way things are going we definitely need to make some changes. If we continue producing energy with our old fossil fuels in other words burning dead dinosaurs to produce electricity what's going to happen to our planet? So you're probably thinking... Ah yes,
Environmental Engineers look at renewable energy solutions like wind, solar and hydroelectric power. But it's not all about that, allow me to explain, Let's look at solar power, it's something we all know quite well.
The main part of a solar panel is silicon, this is what allows the panels to convert the sun's energy into electricity. Now to do this we need to start with a rock-like substance like quartz, also known as Silicon Dioxide.
This needs to be purified to create pure silicon and CO2, which is done by heating it up to nearly 2000 degrees.
Can you imagine the amount of energy needed to melt rock, yes rock! And it is this silicon that is put into our solar panels with the help of Mechanical and Electrical Engineers.
where do Environmental Engineers fit into this? Well, hold on to that thought. Now for wind turbines, aside from the main turbine itself which is designed again by Mechanical and Electrical Engineers. There's also the foundations to think about, which is made from concrete and reinforcement to hold the structure in place Which of course is designed by Civil and Structural Engineers But here's the fact you might not know the production of cement the main material to make concrete, is responsible for around seven per cent of annual carbon emissions, oh not to forget hydroelectric dams, the amount of concrete needed for them, have you seen the size of those things.
So enough with all these different Engineers what about environmental, well you can probably notice a bit of a trend with creating these renewable energy sources and the energy they require and this is where something called a payback period comes in.
Think about it this way, coal and gas power stations are churning out emissions every day and although solar, wind and hydro produce enormous amounts before operation once operating, nearly nothing. But imagine if that solar panel only lasted five years the negative implications of this could be worse than a coal-powered station. And this is how environmental engineers look at the planet, holistically.
Like plastic bottles, it's not really about the one bottle that produces 82.8 grams of CO2 when manufactured, it's the fact that we humans buy over a million of them every single minute. To make that worse aluminium cans, that's closer to 1300 grams of CO2 per can the same as a car driving around for five miles, that's just mind-blowing to think. So for environmental engineers, they need to look at making the most out of these materials. For example, if you were to recycle this aluminium can this could save 95% of the energy needed to make this metal again.
You can see why Environmental Engineers are so keen on improving recycling techniques, they're always looking into what's causing problems to our earth and where our efforts should be focused. Sometimes the problems are huge like the BP Oil Spill Engineers here look at all different biological species and the chemistry of the ocean and how it's been impacted. Or Chernobyl and assessing whether it's safe to actually live in such an ecologically destroyed area.
So working very closely with Civil Engineers to get sustainability designed in from the core is critical and really that's what it boils down to Environmental Engineers tend not to work alone, whether it's working on renewable energy with other Engineers or deforestation with Scientists they work to figure out the problem together.
Environmental Engineers truly understand that infinite growth on a finite planet is impossible and are doing everything they can to make sure that we have a lovely green plant to live on for many many more years to come.
#8 Municipal Engineering
Municipal Engineering deals with city planning and management Township etc
#9 Coastal Engineering
It deals with coastal or marine structures like groins embankments etc
What is Coastal Engineering?
Coastal Engineering is a branch of civil engineering concerned with the specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast as well as the development of the coast itself the hydrodynamic impact of especially waves, tides, storm, surges and tsunamis and often the harsh environment of salt seawater are typical challenges for the coastal engineer as are the MORF dynamic changes of the coastal topography caused both by the autonomous development of the system and man-made changes the areas of interest in coastal engineering include the coasts of the oceans seas marginal seas estuaries and big lakes beside the design building and maintenance of coastal structures
Coastal Engineers are often interdisciplinary involved in integrated coastal zone management also because of their specific knowledge of the hydro and morph dynamics of the coastal system this may include providing input and technology for eg environmental impact assessment port development strategies for coastal defence, land reclamation, offshore wind farms and other energy production facilities etc
The competent coastal engineer must develop a basic understanding of the characteristics and physical behaviour of the coastal environment as well as be able to apply engineering principles and concepts to developing opportunities and solving problems in this environment consequently
#10 Tunnel Engineering
Tunnel Engineering civil engineering branch deals with planning design construction safety and maintenance of tunnels
#11 Earthquake Engineering
It deals with the study of seismic forces earthquake resistant structures etc
What is earthquake engineering?
earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering lab designs and analyzes structures such as buildings and bridges with earthquakes in mind its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes an earthquake or seismic engineer aims to construct structures that will not be damaged in minor shaking and will avoid serious damage or collapse in a major earthquake
earthquake engineering is the scientific field concerned with protecting Society the natural environment and the man-made environment from earthquakes by limiting the seismic risk to socioeconomically acceptable levels traditionally it has been narrowly defined as the study of the behaviour of structures and geostructures subject to seismic loading
It is considered as a subset of structural engineering Geotechnical Engineering mechanical engineering Chemical Engineering Applied Physics etc however the tremendous costs experienced in recent earthquakes have led to an expansion of its scope to encompass disciplines from the wider field of civil engineering mechanical engineering and from the social sciences especially sociology political science economics and finance the main objectives of earthquake engineering are foresee the potential consequences of strong earthquakes on urban areas and civil infrastructure design construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake exposure up to the expectations and in compliance with building codes a properly engineered structure does not necessarily have to be extremely strong or expensive
It has to be properly designed to withstand the seismic effects while sustaining an acceptable level of damage
#12 Material Engineering
Material Engineering deals with the study of material strength properties of materials used in construction
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FAQ 1: What is Top Civil Engineering Branches?
#1 Construction engineering, #2 Structural engineering, #3 Geotechnical Engineering, #4 Transportation Engineering, #5 Surveyed Engineering, #6 Water Resources Engineering, #7 Environmental Engineering, #8 Municipal Engineering, #9 Coastal Engineering, #10 Tunnel Engineering, #11 Earthquake Engineering, #12 Material Engineering
FAQ 2: Where I got detail about Top Civil Engineering Branches?
Welcome to civil Experience civil engineering possess huge scope and contains a wide spectrum of sub-disciplines there are various fields within this engineering branch which you may choose to pursue your career this article is all about the branches of civil engineering