Top 11 Types of Stones Used for Building Constructions

We have to select the best stone for construction according to the requirement of work. every condition has a unique idea of the solution so brief.

In the market of materials variety of stones are available such as Granite, Marble, Basalt, Quartzite, Slate, Sandstone, Lime Stone, Gneiss, Laterite, Kankar and Moorum which can be used in construction as a useful materials 

so we have to select the best stone for construction according to the requirement of construction project work like stone sizes for construction, small stones for construction, stone for road construction, mortar for stone wall construction 

Each and every condition has a unique idea of the solution, therefore, we have a brief knowledge about Stones Used for Building Constructions

The stones which are used in building construction must have some characteristic of stone like hard, durable, tough and free from cracks and other defects which reduce strength and durability

Stones Used for Building Constructions

Each and every type of stone used for different kind of work like best for specials construction application and on other stone replace its characteristic for best utility based on its properties

Like granite and basalt have the ability of high compressive strength and presence of deleterious materials which makes them best suitable construction materials for minor construction works like gnei and some stone specially used for decorative motive

Characteristic of types of stone with suitability

Type of Stone



Granite or Syenite

Granite Most suitable for important engineering works like bridge piers, dams, retaining walls etc

Used for cladding of exterior facing of buildings walls

Used as coarse aggregates in concrete

Fine-grained granite offers high resistance to weathering

Used as a damp-proof course

It can be easily polished and worked

Excess of felspar causes early decay

Low Water absorption is less than 1%

Hard and durable

Compressive strength 100MPa to 250Mpa

Good resistance to weathering and frost but poor for fire

Colour change light grey to pink with time


Marble Most suitable for monuments, ornamental works

Flooring and decorative works like an electric switch, boards also

Specific gravity is 2.65

Compressive strength 70MPa to 75Mpa

Uniform in texture

Easy in shape and cut

Basalt (traps)

Basalt suitable for Road metal (stone base for road construction)

Used as aggregates in concrete

Also used as rubble masonry work like bridge piers, walls of the river

High specific gravity like 2.6 to 3

High compressive strength 200MPa to 350Mpa

Per meter cube weight is between 18KN/m3 to 30KN/m3

Basalt is well resistant to weather

Impermeable to moisture

Colour change dark grey to black with time


Quartzite suitable for Railway ballast

Road metal

Used as coarse aggregates in concrete

Crashing strength is 55 N/mm2


Slate Used in cisterns

Used in Damp proofings and also in roofing

Excellent roof covering materials

Verity available in colour, thickness

Specific gravity is 2.89

Compressive strength 70MPa to 190Mpa


Sandstone - Highly used in Tile stone (roofing)

Flagstone (paving)

Girt (Heavy work)

Natural (ornamental)

Also used in masonry works

Variety of colour such as white, grey, red, yellow, dark grey and brown

Specific gravity is 1.90 to 2.95

Compressive strength 30MPa to 150Mpa

Quartz, Lime, Silica

Lime Stone

Lime Stone - All limestone not useful in the construction of the building

Used in flooring, roofing, paving and walls also

In the manufacture of lime and cement

Specific gravity is 2-2.75

Crashing strength is 55 N/mm2

Affected by frost and atoms

Easy too dressed and fine polish


Gneiss use as Rough stone in works like street pavings

Available in pink, dark grey, purple, light grey and greenish-grey

Quartz and felspar

Strong and durable

Compressive strength 45MPa to 180Mpa


Laterite is Good for road metal

Available in a yellow, grey, and brownish colour



Sandy claystone

Compressive strength 1.9MPa to 2.3Mpa

Strength increase with seasoning


Kankar - Foundation of building

Irregular in shape

Impure limestone


Moorum - Fancy paths like garden walks

Decomposed laterite

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