10 Types Of Tests On Brick | How To Check Quality Of Bricks

10 Types Of Tests On Brick

Bricks are the oldest and man-made product in building construction which mainly made by using clay so we have to performed some importance test on bricks to know the quality of bricks and sufficient for construction or not so in this article we learn about those test in details

According to use, different types of bricks carried out for masonry work like mud bricks, refractory bricks, silica bricks, cement, fire etc 

So test on brick required because its man-made and also variety type of material used in different types

    List of Different types of tests required for brick as per is code

    For the best suitability types of bricks for construction work, we have to perform the following test on bricks
    1. Water Absorption Test
    2. Compressive Strength Test (Crushing Strength Test)
    3. Efflorescence Test
    4. Dimensions Tolerance Test
    5. Hardness Test
    6. Size, Shape and Colour Test
    7. Warpage Test
    8. Soundness Test
    9. Structure Test
    10. Impact Test
    For testing bricks are taken randomly about 20, 32 & 50 no’s from a stack of (2k-10k), (10k-35k), (35k-50k) bricks respectively where k = one thousand

    It lot contains lass then or equal to 2000 bricks, the no of sampling shall be subjected to agreement between the purchaser & supplier

    Water Absorption Test

    IS code: 1077-1992 is available for guidance for water absorption test of bricks procedure

    Objective: This test is performed to know the water absorption of brick

    Water absorption test is a laboratory test of bricks
    Absorption of first-class bricks should not exceed 20% of the weight of dry brick

    Apparatus Required for Water absorption test

    • Bricks
    • Ventilated Oven
    • Weighing balance
    • Water

    Steps Procedure for water absorption test

    Below procedure's step follow for carried out absorption test
      1. Take 5 nos of bricks randomly
      2. Make it dry by ventilated oven at 110°C +- 5°C temperature for the period of 48 hours or more
      3. Note down the weight of bricks separately after cooling
      4. Afternote down weight immersed brick into the water at the normal room temperature for the period of 24 hours
      5. Then take out brick after 24 hours make it dry and Quickly note down weight one by one within 3 minit
      6. Not calculate absorption value by the simple formula
        • The water absorption in % = (weight of water absorbed/weight of brick before the test)*100
        • Absorption % = (W2-W1/W1) * 100
        • Where W1 is dry weight, W2 is the weight after immersion of brick for 24 hours
      7. Now carried out the average value of Absorption % all 5 brick. We take average value for security/safety
      Water Absorption Test |  | 10 Types of tests on bricks
      Water Absorption Test

      Compressive Strength Test

      Objective: Comprehensive strength test of brick is performed to know the compressive strength of brick

      IS code: 1077-1992 is available for guidance for Compressive strength of brick test IS code

      Its also known as "crushing test" of brick
      Compressive strength test of brick is a laboratory test of bricks
      The Minimum required crushing strength of bricks should be near 105kg/cm2

      Apparatus Required for Compressive strength (Co)

      • Bricks
      • Compressive testing machine
      • Cement, sand and water for mortar

      Step in Compressive Strength of brick test procedure

        1. Take 5 nos of bricks randomly
        2. Put it into the water for 24 hours at normal room temperature
        3. Take it out from water after 24 hours and remove the water contents naturally after that clean the brick surface water
        4. After dry fill out brick frogs bu using standard mortar ratio 1:1 (1 part cement and 1 part sand)
        5. Leave it for 24 hours in under moisture environment by using gunny or damp sanks to the setting of mortar
        6. Now time for curing brick for 7 days so that mortar gain their strength and became harden
        7. Take out a brick from the water after 7 days and allow water to drain and make it dry after dry time for compressive strength test
        8. Place the brick between the plate of compressive testing machine flatwise keep in mind that frog of brick facing upward 
        9. The applied load axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm2/minit still a failure of brick
        10. Note the Load (P) at which brick break or fail
          • Compressive/Crushing strength (Co) = [Maximun load at failure(p)/Area of the bed face of brick(A)]
        11. Test all 5 brick and carried out arithmetic mean value of compressive strength
        12. Classification of bricks carried out with the help of Co (compressive strength)

        Classification of bricks according to compressive strength

        Class of Bricks

        Compressive strength

        First-class brick

        105 kg/cm2

        Second class brick

        70 kg/cm2

        Third class brick or common brick

        35 kg/cm2

        Fourth class brick or sun-dried brick

        15 to 25 kg/cm2

        Efflorescence Test

        Objective: Efflorescence test of the brick procedure is performed to know the presence of any alkaline matter in the brick

        Efflorescence test of brick IS code: 1077-1970 is available for guidance for the efflorescence of bricks test

        The compressive strength test is a laboratory test of bricks or field test of brick

        Steps Procedure for Efflorescence test

        1. Take 5 nos of bricks randomly
        2. Bricks are kept in a 150mm dish, containing 25mm depth of distilled water till entire water absorbed or evaporated or 24 hours
        3. The water again filled by 25 mm if more water evaporated
        4. Keep the dishes which used for the test at warm room temperature of 18°C to 30°C which allow proper ventilation
        5. Take out and allowed it to dry at the end check the brick for efflorescence which is identified by seeing white particle of solt on bricks surface

              Classification of bricks according to the percentage of effloresce area


              % of Efflorescence


              No visual deposit


              < 10%






              Heavy & powdered

              Check your specification for allowable efflorescence like in heavy brickwork, it must require nil efflorescence and also for first-class bricks

              Dimensions Tolerance Test

              Objective: Dimensional tolerance test of bricks is performed to know the bricks have required dimension or not

              IS code: 1077-1970/1992 is available for guidance for dimension test of clay bricks in such a way so that 

              Steps Procedure for dimension test of brick

              1. Take 20 nos of bricks randomly
              2. Make brick clean by removing loose particle of clay materials and projecting cyst etc from the surface of the brick
              3. Place the brick on the level smooth surface in series so that surface of bricks are connected with each other
              4. Bricks arrangement done in line with a dimension which is checked

              Hardness Test

              Hardness test of bricks perform on anywhere on field and lab test of bricks to know the resistance capacity of bricks

              Steps Procedure for how is the hardness of brick tested

              1. Take 20 nos of bricks randomly
              2. In this test, an attempt is made on the surface of the bricks to make a with the help of a fingernail or any sharp tool
              3. Then observed brick closely
              4. If you not found any sign of impression on the brick surface means brick is hard enough

              Size, Shape and Colour Test

              Shape and size test

              Shape and size test of brick perform on anywhere on a field test of brick or laboratory test of bricks
              1. Take 20 nos of bricks randomly
              2. Stacked bricks lengthwise along with the height and width
              3. For best bricks results must be within the following permissible limits


              3680 mm to 3920 mm


              1740 mm to 1860 mm


              1740 mm to 1860 mm

              Colour Test
                Good bricks always have uniform dark red or copper colour

                Warpage test

                Warpage (band/twist out of shape) of bricks is measured with the help of flat steel or glass surface

                Warpage = the greatest distance of crick surface from the edge of straightness

                Soundness Test

                Soundness test of brick carried out to check the nature of bricks when it connects with sudden impact load

                Steps Procedure for Soundness test

                1. Take two random bricks
                2. Then struck them with each other
                3. If brick produce well metallic sound then tested brick quality is good

                Structure Test

                This test performs on anywhere on-site or laboratory

                Steps Procedure for Structure test

                1. Eliminated broken brick and then inspect other bricks
                2. Its structure should be homogeneous materials well compacted
                3. Then check it free from any imperfections or not like lumps or holes etc

                Impact Test

                Impact test of brick perform on anywhere on-site or laboratory

                Steps Procedure for impact  test

                1. Take the bricks
                2. Drop if freely from a 1-meter height on a hard surface
                3. Inspect the dropped brick any damage has occurred or not
                4. If the bricks broke or crack its means that the brick’s impact value is lower so reject those brick
                Conclusion, I think I cover all possible test required for bricks in steps wise in an easy way if you find out any suggestion or add any test which is missing than free to inform comment section

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