Surveying in Civil Engineering | Surveying For Civil Engineering

Surveying in Civil Engineering - Before starting construction on such projects Surveying For Civil Engineering is must required Civil Surveying

Civil engineering refers to the building of structures or systems in the natural environment; typical civil engineering projects include roads, bridges, airports, dams, sewers and other pipelines, and electrical grids.

Before starting construction on such projects, surveying the land to determine the exact parameters of the natural environment is of great importance.

What is Surveying in Civil Engineering

Surveying in Civil Engineering | Surveying For Civil Engineering
Surveying in Civil Engineering

Definition of Surveying: Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as a plan or map.

The main purpose of surveying in civil engineering is to determine the three-dimensional relationships between points of different locations. To identify and calculate such as the distances and angles between points and lines so that engineers determine how to draw up plans for public buildings, homes, roads, bridges and a variety of other construction and infrastructure projects.

Civil Surveying branch also involves specific equipment and GPS data acquired from satellites. High-precision electromechanical and optical equipment is also a necessity for ensuring measurements are accurate.

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So, what is the importance of surveying to civil engineers? This question comes to mind right! we already provide useful information for the importance of surveying below

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What is The Importance of Surveying to Civil Engineers?

The knowledge of surveying is advantageous in many phases of engineering. Surveying is of vital importance in any engineering project. Some of the basic importance of Surveying is discussed below.

Civil surveying is useful in a tremendous variety of different applications, including:

  1. To fix the national and state boundaries;
  2. To chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
  3. To establish control points;
  4. To execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
  5. To prepare a topographic map of the land surface of the earth.
  6. Preparing plots.
  7. Surveying is used to prepare a topographic map of the land surface of the earth.
  8. Analyzing topography.
  9. Planning for new construction projects.
  10. Planning and constructing mines.
  11. The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as railways, highways, tunnelling, irrigation, dams, reservoirs, waterworks, sewerage works, airfields, ports, massive buildings, etc.
  12. Estimating projected paths of roads, railways, power lines and irrigation systems.
  13. Assessing and recording the boundaries of different properties to determine land ownership.
  14. Assessing the position of existing structures like highways, canals, dams and bridges.
  15. The measurement of land and the fixation of its boundaries cannot be done without surveying.
  16. Preparing for military operations and engagements.
  17. Charting navigational routes.

According to the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM)

Surveying is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points or details.

Surveying also includes the technique of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. From the plans, sections, and maps prepared by surveying, the area and volume of a particular plot of land can be calculated. A map represents the horizontal projection of the area surveyed and not the actual area. But the vertical distance can be represented more correctly by drawing sections.

During a survey, surveyors use various tools to do their job successfully and accurately, such as total stations, GPS receivers, prisms, 3D scanners, radio communicators, digital levels, dumpy level and surveying software etc.

Different Types of Surveying For Civil Engineering

Construction is the broad branch of Civil Engineering, engineers need to carry survey a wide range of features, from mountains to oceans to rivers before any construction project.

Generally, Engineers use several different types of surveying for civil engineering that including:

Construction Surveying

Construction surveying is most useful for assessing the arrangement of the buildings, road construction, power lines, bridge and other structures surrounding potential construction sites. Analyzing this information makes it easier to plan construction projects.

Geological Surveying

Geological surveying maps out features of the physical landscape, such as rivers, valleys, mountains and more. Satellite data is essential for geological surveying, and engineers frequently use satellite data or aerial photographs to help them in their work.

Deformation Surveying

Deformation surveying helps to establish if a geographical or man-made feature, such as a road, foundation, coastline or river, is changing shape. In deformation surveying, engineers record the three-dimensional coordinates of specific points. After some time has elapsed, they record the coordinates again to see if they have changed. A comparison of the two data sets can reveal if deformation or movement has occurred.

Topographic Surveying

Topographic surveying analyzes the shape and physical features of a particular landscape. Engineers assess the height of different geographical coordinates and then draw contour lines to indicate areas of the same elevation. They can then use these findings to create topographical maps and to assess terrain for future building or infrastructure projects.

Hydrographic Surveying

Hydrographic surveying is similar to geological surveying, but it maps out coastlines specifically. Accurate hydrographic surveying is crucial to the work of the Coast Guard and any marine rescue operations. It also helps create navigational maps for sailors and assists conservationists in managing coastal resources.

Technology Used in Civil Surveying

Since ancient times, engineers have developed a host of tools to help them survey all types of features. In civil surveying, different types of technology are available, like:

Computer Assisted Drawing (CAD)

Once engineers have gathered survey data, computer-assisted drawing helps turn that data into a useful visual representation, such as a map or three-dimensional model. CAD allows for a greater level of precision and detail than could not be achieved with manual sketching or drawing.

Global Positioning Satellite Data

GPS data is crucial for civil surveying because it allows for the pinpointing of precise locations and coordinates. Where a visual assessment alone would be insufficient for determining whether a corner had shifted or a foundation had sunk, the pinpoint accuracy of GPS data allows engineers to know for sure.

Aerial Photogrammetry

Drones are often useful for the aerial photography necessary in civil engineering. Once they have a number of aerial photographs of the landscape or site in question, engineers can use aerial photogrammetry to extract topographical data from the photos. Aerial photogrammetry combines multiple shots from different angles to create an accurate 3D model.

Point Cloud Modeling

To develop accurate 3D survey models, engineers also often create a point cloud or a set of three-dimensional data points. Surveyors use 3D laser-scanning technology to generate a data map of the area they wish to model. Once they have data that represents every surface they need, they can then bring the points together through point cloud modeling into an accurate and detailed 3D model.

Application of GIS in Surveying

👉 GIS (Geographical Information System) is a specific information system applying to geographic information data to support capital management, manipulation analysis, modelling and display of spatially reference data for complex planning & management problems.

GIS Data Consists of Two Types of Data

👉 Spatial data

👉 Non spatial data

Elements of GIS

👉 Hardware

👉 Software

👉 Data

👉 User or People

Relationship Between Civil Engineering and Surveying

Civil engineering is a broad discipline. In fact, it’s the second oldest engineering discipline apart from military engineering.

Civil engineering is often associated with public works, but that’s not all it is. Civil engineering is any type of engineering that involves building infrastructure on top of the environment: Canals, bridges, and pipelines are most notable.

Since civil engineering involves directly impacting the environment (often in a significant way), surveys are incredibly important. Surveys make sure that the protected environment isn’t adversely affected, that the structure is safe, and that the project is overall as efficient as possible.

So, what is surveying in civil engineering? It is a critical part of every stage of a project’s development. We already explained in detail in the civil experience blog what is surveying in civil engineering and other more important points so read carefully.

What Tools Are Used in Civil Engineering Surveys?

Before inventing modern tools for civil engineering a surveyor would use a chain survey to measure distances, which could get tiring. Nowadays, surveying has gotten much easier as well as more accurate thanks to recent advanced technology.

Surveying in Civil Engineering | Surveying For Civil Engineering

Modern surveying tools include computer programs, high-accuracy LiDAR (laser-based measurement), and, most importantly, the total station. A total station is an instrument that can be used when making horizontal and vertical measurements; it may use both electromagnetic and optical tools. Total stations have great accuracy, even over long distances, and can connect to a computer for data processing.

Also ReadTop Construction Equipment List

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FAQ 1: What is Surveying in Civil Engineering?

Definition of Surveying: Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as a plan or map.

FAQ 2: What is The Importance of Surveying to Civil Engineers?

Civil surveying is useful in a tremendous variety of different applications, including:To fix the national and state boundaries;To chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;To establish control points;To execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; andTo prepare a topographic map of the land surface of the earth.Preparing plots.Surveying is used to prepare a topographic map of the land surface of the earth.Analyzing topography.Planning for new construction projects.Planning and constructing mines.The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as railways, highways, tunnelling, irrigation, dams, reservoirs, waterworks, sewerage works, airfields, ports, massive buildings, etc.Estimating projected paths of roads, railways, power lines and irrigation systems.Assessing and recording the boundaries of different properties to determine land ownership.Assessing the position of existing structures like highways, canals, dams and bridges.The measurement of land and the fixation of its boundaries cannot be done without surveying.Preparing for military operations and engagements.Charting navigational routes.

FAQ 3: How many Different Types of Surveying For Civil Engineering?

Generally, Engineers use several different types of surveying for civil engineering that including:1. Construction Surveying2. Geological Surveying3. Deformation Surveying4. Topographic Surveying5. Hydrographic Surveying

FAQ 4: Technology Used in Civil Surveying

- Computer Assisted Drawing (CAD)- Global Positioning Satellite Data- Aerial Photogrammetry- Point Cloud Modeling- Application of GIS in Surveying

FAQ 5: Whar are the Relationship Between Civil Engineering and Surveying?

Civil engineering is a broad discipline. In fact, it’s the second oldest engineering discipline apart from military engineering.Civil engineering is often associated with public works, but that’s not all it is. Civil engineering is any type of engineering that involves building infrastructure on top of the environment: Canals, bridges, and pipelines are most notable.Since civil engineering involves directly impacting the environment (often in a significant way), surveys are incredibly important. Surveys make sure that the protected environment isn’t adversely affected, that the structure is safe, and that the project is overall as efficient as possible.So, what is surveying in civil engineering? It is a critical part of every stage of a project’s development. We already explained in detail in the civil experience blog what is surveying in civil engineering and other more important points so read carefully.

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