Types of Cement Used in Building Construction
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Portland Blast Furnace Cement Type of Cements
Portland Blast Furnace Cement Type of Cements is manufactured by mixing Portland cement clinker with granulated blast furnace slag (This slag is a waste product obtained from a blast furnace that contains an oxide of lime, silica and alumina) and gypsum in suitable proportions and grinding the mixture to the required fineness.
The proportion of the slag should not less than 25% and not more than 65% of the total mass of the mixture.
Portland Blast Furnace Cement contains approximately 45% CaO and 35% silica.
Portland Blast Furnace Cement is similar and cheaper than O.P.C (and it can replace it.)
It has a low heat of hydration and is better resistant to soil and water containing excessive amounts of sulphates, alkalies.
Because of its low heat evolution, mass concrete structures such as dams & foundations can be used.
Type of Cements Portland Pozzolana Cement
IS code for Portland Pozzolana Cement (Fly ash based) is IS 1489 (part 1) : 1991
IS code for Portland Pozzolana Cement (Calcines clay based) is IS 1489 (part 2) : 1991
Portland Blast Furnace Cement is manufactured by grinding Portland cement clinker with Pozzolana and the required quantity of gypsum. (The pozzolana is materials which at ordinary temperature react with lime in presence of water, resulting in cementing materials.) Fly ash, burnt clay are used as Pozzolana.
The proportion of Pozzolana may be 10-25% by weight of Pozzolana cement.
This cement has a higher resistance to chemical agencies and to seawater because of the absence of lime.
The advantage of this cement is the reduction in cost, increased impermeability.
High Alumina Cement Type of Cement
High Alumina Cement Type of Cement is non-Portland cement, it is manufacture by Melting a mixture of aluminous and Calcareous Materials in Suitable proportion and grinding the resulting clinker to a fine powder (which is black in colour).
The raw materials used for High Alumina Cement Type of Cement's manufacturing are chalk and bauxite which is special clay of extremely high alumina content.
High Alumina Cement Type of Cement is used where early removal of formwork is required.
High Alumina Cement Type of Cement's rapid hardening properties arise from the presence of Calcium aluminate like, Calcium silicates in portland cement.
High Alumina Cement Type of Cement's one day strength is equal to 28 days strength of ordinary Portland cement.